Modernism stems from a philosophical transformation that impacted Western society in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, following the end of World War I. It sought to transition from an outdated political environment with newness and experimentation, shaping the development of industrial societies and influencing the rapid growth of cities. Modernism rejected the traditional thoughts of enlightenment and realism, which was expressed in self-conscious fashions such as parodies and abstractions. Expressionism, futurism, vorticism, cubism, surrealism, and dada are art forms that all thrived during the modernist movement. Modernist architecture is sleek and minimalistic, cutting excess and focusing on the practicality of the materials used, which shaped a comprehensive and contemporary aesthetic that sought to represent stability. Steel, glass, molded plywood, and plastics are all popular mediums for modernist designs.